The grooved surface pictured above is a slickenside. Slickensides indicate the relative direction of movement between fault blocks (hanging wall moved up, down, laterally, etc..).
Slickensides form when fault blocks move against each other. The natural irregularities on each scratches grooves into the other. The grooves are parallel to movement; for instance in this example, movement was either to the right or the left. To tell whether it was right or left, you can rub your hand along the slickensides. They feel smooth in the direction the fault moved and rough in the opposite direction – it’s like petting a dog from tail to head. Slickensides are a valuable tool because determining fault movement can be a challenge when there are no easily-recognized beds that can be correlated across the fault to show the sense of offset.
The shale above was photographed in Big Rock Quarry, North Little Rock, AR. It’s a part of the Jackfork Formation (Pennsylvanian).
Pictured above is one of many faults, closely spaced together, in an outcrop of the Atoka Formation, near Lake Fort Smith, Arkansas. The fault pictured extends from the upper right to the lower left and is highlighted. This type of faulting is called syn-depositional faulting, meaning it occurred at about the same time the rock was being deposited. It results in disturbed-looking outcrops like this one.
Around 300 million years ago, plate tectonic forces were deforming the Ouachita Mountains in south central Arkansas. Those forces also caused faulting in the southern Ozark Plateaus, as the sediment that composes this rock outcrop was being deposited. The freshly deposited sediment wasn’t fully consolidated when the faulting took place and the rock surrounding the fault got contorted by the stress.
Some of the deformed features of the outcrop are labeled above. The Zone of Soft-Sediment Deformation is the area surrounding the fault where the rock has been deformed by shearing: there is no recognizable bedding in that zone. The soft clay-rich Deformed Shale was squeezed plastically between the fault blocks in that soft sediment deformation zone. The bedding orientations surrounding the deformation zone (indicated by magenta lines) vary greatly, because the soft bedrock was broken and heaved around by the fault.
In this photo we are looking at rock beds, tilted till they are nearly vertical, and exposed in three levels in a quarry near Kirby, Arkansas, Ouachita Mountains. Like a humongous 3-step staircase, each ascending level of the outcrop provides a deeper view into the rock formation. An outcrop like this one illuminates a couple of basic but important concepts of geology: key beds, and strike and dip.
The key beds or beds that can be traced across the outcrop, such as the one marked with red dots above, appear to shift to the right as your eyes ascend the steps. These are not faults! It’s an optical illusion. If our view were aligned parallel with the sides of the beds, they would appear aligned, but our view is actually diagonal to the bedding. To illustrate this, here is the same picture with a drawing of the key bed as if it were jutting out of the outcrop.
This is why geologists measure the orientation of rock beds – known as the bed’s strike and dip. Knowing how a bed is oriented in one place can help you to predict where it will be in another, perhaps inaccessible, place such as deep in the subsurface. If that bed is full of oil, gas, or other precious commodity, predicting where it is becomes very important.
This is a picture of shale, collected from the Womble Formation, near Lake Ouachita State Park, Arkansas. The photo shows examples of the, now extinct, Graptolites: fossilized colonies of tiny marine animals.
There were many types of Graptolites. Some were attached to the sea floor, like corals, while others floated in the water, like plankton. The feather-shaped fossils pictured here are actually the nests in which the animals lived. Each tooth-like tube, on the edges of the nests, housed a tiny animal. Several of these nests would be linked together into a larger colony.
At one time the oceans were full of Graptolites, but by about 300 million years ago they died out for unknown reasons. Because they were abundant, widespread, and continually evolving, Graptolites are important fossils for dating ancient marine rocks.
Before the invention of electric refrigerators, blocks of ice in insulated wooden cabinets called “iceboxes” kept food from spoiling quickly in warm climates. This required access to ice, which had to be hauled in from cold climates by boat, and wasn’t always available, especially in remote places. The picture above shows a cool water spring that was modified long ago into a primitive kind of refrigerator. The structure is made of concrete. When it was in use, it would have had a door to keep cool in and keep animals and insects out, as much as possible.
Just like caves, cool water springs in Arkansas stay close to 56 degrees in the summer – the ambient ground temperature. Anyone that’s spent a summer in Arkansas knows it gets oppressively hot. Having a place you could store milk, eggs, and other perishables would certainly have come in handy. You still come across these old structures if you spend a lot of time out in the woods around the state. This one was photographed near Hot Springs, Arkansas, in the Ouachita Mountains.
This is an anticline exposed on Mc Leod Street, southwest of Hot Springs, Garland County, Arkansas. It’s not unique as, anticlines are common in the Ouachita’s and other mountain ranges throughout the world. Most often though, these structures are large scale and cover expanses of land that can’t be viewed from a human vantage point. When they do form on a scale that’s small enough for human observation, we typically don’t have the benefit of a freshly blasted exposure like this one.
In fact, many times geologists must infer that folds like this exist in places deep underground that no one has or will ever see. That’s why, if you see a geologist on the side of the road, taking something like this in, as in the picture above, just let him have his little moment. The exposure is of deep marine sedimentary deposits of the Stanley Formation.
This photo is of an asymmetrical anticline in the Stanley Formation. It’s asymmetrical because the right limb of the fold is dipping at a steeper angle than the left limb. This type of fold is common in the Ouachita Mountains, however, this one has a small igneous intrusion on the left limb (lower left, dark gray). The intrusion consists of a dike, which split several of the lower beds at nearly a right angle, and a sill emplaced parallel to the bedding.
From this picture, and basic geologic principals, we can tell the history of these rocks. Sediment was first deposited in horizontal layers (principal of horizontality). Later, the layers cemented to form solid rock – the layers must have been firm before they were deformed because they maintained their shape. Next, tectonic forces in the earth bent the rock into an anticline and, after it was folded, the igneous intrusion was forced into the rock. We know the intrusion was last because it cut across the rock layers and the fold (principal of cross-cutting relationships).
One of the most challenging aspects of geology is interpreting a lot from a little information. It’s also part of what makes it so interesting!